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ONU and OLT are two important components in a fiber optic network, particularly in a passive optical network (PON) architecture.
An ONU, or Optical Network Unit, is a device that is typically located at the customer's premise and is used to connect the customer's equipment to the PON network. The ONU receives and transmits data over the fiber optic cable and converts the optical signal to an electrical signal that can be understood by the customer's equipment. It may also perform functions such as media conversion, protocol conversion, and encryption/decryption.
An OLT, or Optical Line Terminal, is a device that is located at the service provider's central office or hub and is used to aggregate and manage multiple ONUs connected to the PON network. The OLT communicates with the ONUs using a time-division multiplexing (TDM) scheme, allowing multiple ONUs to share the same upstream bandwidth. It may also perform functions such as traffic management, Quality of Service (QoS) control, and network monitoring.
Together, the ONU and OLT form the core of a PON-based fiber optic network, providing a high-speed and cost-effective solution for delivering broadband access to customers. They allow service providers to deliver high-bandwidth services such as internet, voice, and video to customers over long distances without the need for active equipment or costly infrastructure.